عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the discussions influenced by political debates, is the general theory of the justice of the Companions of the Prophet Muhammad. The Umayyad regime tried to omit the Household of the Prophet from the Islamic society and introduce others as religious authorities by this theory. The Holy Quran is a worthy source for knowing the Companions as the verses of Jihad reflects the behavior of the Companions towards God and His Prophet. This article tries to introduce the Companions according to the verses of Jihad. By analyzing the verses of Jihad according to the historical course of the battles, we have come to these results:
1- Opposition with the Prophet in the Battle of Badr in order to avoid the conflict with the commercial and military convoy of Quraish.
2- In the Battle of Ohod the withdrawal of one third of Muslim troops by the leadership of Abdullah ibn Ubayy weakened the courage of the Muslims and a number of 40 from Muslim troops have left the battle field for trophies. This opposition with the Prophet caused 70 Muslims to be martyred and most of the Muslims to escape and made the prophet alone with a few number of Believers.
3- In the Battle of Ahzab with the enemy surrounded the city of Madinah the Hypocrites and those with weak Faith did not attend the battle and made many others not to attend too.
4- Many of Companions did not accompany the Prophet in his Omrah trip to Mecca supposing that he will be killed by the Hypocrites and will not come back to Medinah.
5- In conquering of Mecca some people were spies of the people of Mecca and the Sura Mumtahinah revealed in this respect.
6- In the Battle of Hunain many escaped from the battle field and also the prophet was accused for the way he divided the trophies.
In the Battle of Tabuk many did not departed for the battle and at the same time mocked those who supported financially the battle and for justification lied to the prophet with lie swear. The closer to the death of the Porphet, the more the number of the Hypocrites and those with weak faith. Quranic verses prove this fact and shows that not all Companions were just.